Turnstar Holdings Limited (TURNST.bw) listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange under the Investment sector has released it’s 2006 interim results for the half year.For more information about Turnstar Holdings Limited (TURNST.bw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Turnstar Holdings Limited (TURNST.bw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Turnstar Holdings Limited (TURNST.bw) 2006 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileTurnstar Holdings Limited is a property investment company operating in Botswana and Tanzania. The company mainly invests in retail property, with some investment in commercial, residential and industrial properties. Turnstar Holdings Limited has maximised its property performance through proactive asset management, property management and leasing. Its diversified property portfolio includes prime retail destinations in Botswana: Game City Shopping Centre, one of the largest and busiest in Gaborone; Nzano Shopping Centre in Francistown; Supa Save Mall in Gaborone; and Mlimani Shopping Centre, a major retail destination in Dar Es Salaam. Turnstar Holdings Limited acquired its first office in Dubai in 2017, located in a prime real estate area between Al-Basari and Dubai Legends.
Rogers & Co Ltd (ROGE.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Industrial holding sector has released it’s 2012 annual report.For more information about Rogers & Co Ltd (ROGE.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Rogers & Co Ltd (ROGE.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Rogers & Co Ltd (ROGE.mu) 2012 annual report.Company ProfileRogers & Co Limited is an international and investment services company headquartered in Mauritius, that primarily focuses on operations in four markets which are, financial tech, hospitality, logistics and property where the company provides services such as fiduciary, outsourcing, and consulting services, such as tax advisory, captive insurance management, fund administration, and actuarial services, technology services, including integrated business solutions, cloud computing, unified communications and collaboration, and mobile and converged connectivity services and financial services. Rogers & Co Limited operates through the following segments, aviation, financial services, hospitality, logistics, property, real estate and agribusiness, technology, corporate office, and corporate treasury. Rogers & Co limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc (SEPLAT.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Energy sector has released it’s 2017 interim results for the third quarter.For more information about Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc (SEPLAT.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc (SEPLAT.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc (SEPLAT.ng) 2017 interim results for the third quarter.Company ProfileSeplat Petroleum Development Company Plc is an oil and gas exploration company in Nigeria operating a portfolio of assets in the Niger Delta Region. This includes a 45% stake in OML 4 which covers an area of 267 square kilometres; a 45% stake in OML 38 which covers an area of 2 094 square kilometres; and a 45% stake in OML 41 that covers an area of 291 square kilometres. Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc also holds a 40% non-operated working interest in OPL 283 marginal field which is located in the northern onshore deposit-belt of the Niger Delta; a 40% non-operated interest in OML 53 that covers an area of 1 585 square kilometres located onshore in north-eastern Niger Delta; and interest in OML 55 that covers an area of 840 square kilometres located in south-eastern Niger Delta. The company’s head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Seplat Petroleum Development Company Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
Enter Your Email Address The Persimmon share price is up more than 6% this morning, but it still looks like a top FTSE bargain to me.The entire building sector has enjoyed a boost this morning from reports that chancellor Rishi Sunak may suspend stamp duty to revive the housing market. Investor sentiment has been further lifted by positive results from the UK’s largest housebuilder Barratt Developments.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…The Barratt share price is similarly up 6% after it reported a “strong” forward order book with sales ahead of last year. It also reported a “welcome recovery in internet activity, site visitors and net reservations across both the industry and our business.”The double dose of good news has boosted all the major housebuilders, with Crest Nicholson Holdings, Redrow, and Vistry also climbing. Yet I reckon these could still be FTSE bargains because the recovery has further to run.I remain a fan of the housebuilders as a source of long-term income and capital growth. Yet the sector has been through a bumpy time since Brexit. Coronavirus bought the housing market to a halt. But one thing hasn’t change. Demand for property will remain high as the population rises, and supply cannot keep up.I’d buy these FTSE bargainsA week ago, I tipped the Barratt and Crest Nicholson share prices, hailing them as top FTSE 100 bargains worth buying ahead of the recovery.Persimmon (LSE: PLC) also tempts me. I tipped the FTSE 100 stock at the height of Covid-19 gloom in early April after it mothballed construction sites, stopped selling homes, and cancelled its interim dividend.At the time, the Persimmon share price stood at 1,666p. Today, it trades at 2,403p. That’s a rise of 44%. I’m no stock-picking genius. I simply follow the Motley Fool philosophy of hunting down top stocks at times of crisis, with the aim of holding on for the rebound. This strategy is proving itself yet again.I’d still buy Persimmon today. Despite the recent recovery, its stock remains a third below its pre-coronavirus crisis peak in January. It trades at 8.5 times earnings, if you can trust the P/E ratio in these strange times.This stock is cheap after the market crashFellow-housebuilder Vistry Group (LSE: VTY) looks even cheaper at 6.71 times earnings. It might offer an even better buying opportunity, as the share price is still 50% below January’s peak.Again, the group had to scrap its dividend to conserve cash, but at least it compensated investors by issuing £60m of shares in lieu. I wish more companies had done that.The FTSE 250 group was going great guns before the crisis, with profits up 12% in 2019 and margins hitting 17%. In May, it reported a forward order book totalling £827m. It does have net debt of £476m, but this is balanced by committed banking facilities totalling £770m, with well-spread maturities out to 2027.Housebuilding still looks like a tempting sector for long-term investors looking to benefit from the stock market crash.Or you may prefer this suggestion… £2k to invest after the stock market crash? I’d buy these 2 FTSE bargains before the recovery Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. 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Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Harvey Jones | Monday, 6th July, 2020 | More on: PSN VTY Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. 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Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Rector Martinsville, VA Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Submit a Job Listing Youth Minister Lorton, VA Video Canon Richard Miller says: November 18, 2013 at 5:31 pm Well said Madame President. You masterfully reflected on the forum and further work needed in our church. Comments are closed. Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA An Evening with Aliya Cycon Playing the Oud Lancaster, PA (and streaming online) July 3 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Associate Rector Columbus, GA Rector Tampa, FL State of Racism, The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Rector Belleville, IL Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Submit a Press Release Virtual Episcopal Latino Ministry Competency Course Online Course Aug. 9-13 Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Rector Shreveport, LA Rector Washington, DC Rector Smithfield, NC Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Submit an Event Listing Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Featured Jobs & Calls Rector Albany, NY [Episcopal News Service – Jackson, Mississippi] Annette Buchanan, president of the Union of Black Episcopalians, discusses her hopes for the future of America and the importance of “Fifty Years Later: The State of Racism in America,” a two-day gathering sponsored by the Episcopal Church and the Diocese of Mississippi at St. Andrew’s Episcopal Cathedral in downtown Jackson. Buchanan is from the Diocese of New Jersey.– The Rev. Mary Frances Schjonberg is an editor/reporter for the Episcopal News Service. The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Featured Events Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Collierville, TN By Mary Frances SchjonbergPosted Nov 18, 2013 TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Rector Hopkinsville, KY Comments (1) Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Rector Pittsburgh, PA Press Release Service Rector Knoxville, TN UBE president reflects on hopes, concerns for future of race relations Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Episcopal Church releases new prayer book translations into Spanish and French, solicits feedback Episcopal Church Office of Public Affairs This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Director of Music Morristown, NJ Rector Bath, NC Tags Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Curate Diocese of Nebraska
Featured Events Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Rector Knoxville, TN General Convention, Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Curate Diocese of Nebraska Associate Rector Columbus, GA The Rev. Kevin Johnson, a priest from Arlington, Texas, speaks July 5 at a hearing on church planting. Photo: David Paulsen/Episcopal News Service[Episcopal News Service – Austin, Texas] An evening hearing July 5 on church planting, while primarily centered around a General Convention resolution with a multimillion-dollar price tag, addressed financials only in passing while generating more discussion on aspirations for evangelism and the future of the church.Church planters and ministry developers offered examples from their experiences, and church leaders pressed them for more details on how the Episcopal Church can support such efforts.Full ENS coverage of the 79th meeting of General Convention is available here.“I come to you a living witness of the direct effect of investment in a parish,” the Rev. Kevin Johnson, a deputy from the Diocese of Fort Worth, said at the joint hearing of the Evangelism and Church Planting Committee and the Congregational and Diocesan Vitality Committee.Johnson, though not a recipient of a church planting grant, was able to start a new church with an Episcopal Church grant. His congregation, St. Alban’s Episcopal Church in Arlington, Texas, was forced to start anew in a theater after a doctrinal split in the diocese led to a legal dispute over possession of the church building.In the process, Johnson said, St. Alban’s has found a “new way to be church,” and the quest to find those new ways is at the heart of the Episcopal Church’s increased investment in church plants in recent years.General Convention approved $1.8 million for church plants and Mission Enterprise Zones in the 2013-2015 triennium, and $3.4 million was allocated for such ministries from 2016 to 2018. The evangelism committee has been assigned Resolution A005 that would approve $6.8 million in spending over the next three years to build on recent successes of these “holy experiments.”The church vitality committee joined the hearing because Resolution A032, which was assigned to it, calls for $3 million in spending on church redevelopment, which overlaps with the work of church planting. By the end of the joint hearing at the JW Marriott, the two committees agreed to move that resolution to the evangelism committee’s plate as well.Rhode Island Bishop Nicholas Knisely, co-chair of the evangelism committee, took the lead in pressing for answers to the question, “What could we do to be more effective?”Johnson recommended coaching on church development and marketing support. Charis Hill, a deputy from Northern California who spoke from her wheelchair, said she would like to see the church develop more ministries focused on outreach to people with disabilities.The Rev. Ramelle McCall, a member of the evangelism committee and a deputy from Maryland, suggested churches and dioceses should be looking outward and asking what they can do be a positive presence in the community, from dealing with the opioid epidemic to feeding the hungry.“It is exhausting work, but it is good work,” said McCall, who is urban missioner for the Diocese of Maryland. One example he cited was a partnership in Maryland between Evangelical Lutherans, Presbyterians and Episcopalians on a joint ministry called the Slate Project, which is “really working this new kind of community in our cathedral.” He spoke in favor of the church planting resolution and the resources it can provide for new, innovative initiatives like those he is working to support in his diocese.Church planting “is Crock-Pot work, not microwave work,” the Rev. Michael Michie, staff officer for church planting infrastructure, said at the July 5 hearing. Photo: David Paulsen/Episcopal News ServiceThe chairs also asked the Rev. Michael Michie to add his perspective to the discussion. Michie is the Episcopal Church staff officer for church planting infrastructure and works closely with recipients of church planning and Mission Enterprise Zone grants to ensure they are getting the backing they need. Most of these ministries would not be possible without the financial support they receive from the church, he said, and they don’t succeed overnight.“This is Crock-Pot work, not microwave work,” Michie told the committees. “To expect these seeds to take root, sprout and bear fruit perfectly within triennial cycles is a little unrealistic, and I think the central challenge for the Episcopal churches when it comes to starting new ministries … it’s a leadership development question.”At the same time, Michie said, the lessons learned by church planters can be applied to existing congregations everywhere that are looking for new ways to be church in their communities.“I think any congregation can think like a church planter,” he said. “Revitalization can happen anywhere.”The committees also took comments on Resolution A006, which calls for the collection of demographic info about the church leaders behind new evangelism ministries, so that data can be compared with info on the communities they are trying to serve.There was general support for the goal of encouraging congregations to think more about representation, though committee members expressed ambivalence about the approach. Could it somehow be used to penalize congregations with low representation scores? Would a homogenous vestry overshadow the greater diversity in a congregation’s ministry leaders?Indianapolis Bishop Jennifer Baskerville-Burrows also suggested the Episcopal Church didn’t need a new analysis tool to learn many of its congregations were out of sync with their communities, and she questioned whether collecting this info would have any effect.“If we want our congregations to reflect our communities’ demographics, there’s a lot of work to do,” she said.– David Paulsen is an editor and reporter for the Episcopal News Service. He can be reached at [email protected] General Convention 2018, Comments (1) TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Rector Albany, NY Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Rector Belleville, IL July 9, 2018 at 11:16 am Excellent article over all although not quite accurate with regard to St Alban’s. We are not a new church. St Alban’s recently celebrated 70 years of existence in Arlington TX. We have been worshiping at Theatre Arlington for almost 11 years as a result of the decision by the former bishop and delegates to remove our diocese from the Episcopal Church. Fr Kevin came to us two + years ago. He has certainly been instrumental in our continued growth and infusion into our community. Comments are closed. Youth Minister Lorton, VA Rector Smithfield, NC This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Director of Music Morristown, NJ Rector Pittsburgh, PA Rector Hopkinsville, KY Press Release Service Submit a Press Release Rector Washington, DC Pam Hardaway says: Tags Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Evangelism, Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Hearing on church planting fosters wide-ranging discussion on evangelism’s cutting edge Rector Shreveport, LA Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Submit an Event Listing Featured Jobs & Calls In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Rector Collierville, TN AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Rector Tampa, FL Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Rector Martinsville, VA Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Submit a Job Listing Mission Enterprise Zones By David PaulsenPosted Jul 6, 2018 Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Rector Bath, NC Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem
Weston Spirit, Young Minds Trust, St Anne’s Soho and the Second 1st Hurst Scout Group have beaten off competition from charities across the UK in the 2004 Charities’ Online Accounts Awards.The Awards, now in their second year, are hosted by CAF (Charities Aid Foundation) and ICAEW (the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales).At a ceremony held today, 8 December, at Chartered Accountants’ Hall, London, the winners will be formally awarded their prize of £2,000 for the most effective online presentation for their annual report and accounts.Split into four income categories, the winner in category A (income above £2 million), is Weston Spirit. The youth charity tackles issues such as social exclusion through personal development programmes and projects. According to the judges, Weston Spirit stood out because of its leading edge use of HTML. The general look and feel of the accounts suggested that real thought had gone into presenting them with an online audience in mind.The mental health charity Young Minds Trust took first place in category B (between £500,000 and £2 million). The judges were impressed with the clear way in which the report and accounts were set out.London-based St Anne’s, Soho, the homelessness charity, was the winner in category C (between £100,000 and £500,000). The judges felt St Anne’s deserved top marks for its technical presentation and design.In category D (Income below £100,000), Second 1st Hurst Scout Group took first place. The judges agreed that the Group stood out not only within its category, but against many larger charities for the quality and accessibility of its report and accounts.The ceremony begins at 2pm and is followed by a seminar hosted by CFDG (Charity Finance Directors’ Group). Keynote speaker Pesh Framjee, Head of the Non Profit Organisations Unit at Deloitte and special advisor to CFDG will outline the current fiscal environment affecting charity accounting, including SORP and the Charities’ Bill.For all press enquiries please contact either Vicki or Wendy in the CAF Press officeT: 01732 520 120/094E: [email protected] visit cafonline.org/newsCharities Aid Foundation25 Kings Hill Avenue,Kings Hill, West Malling, Kent ME19 4TAT: 01732 520 000F: 01732 520 001E: [email protected]: www.cafonline.orgRegistered Charity Number 268369 AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis Tagged with: Awards Charities Aid Foundation Finance Howard Lake | 8 December 2004 | News Winners of the 2004 Online Accounts Awards Announced 32 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
Howard Lake | 26 October 2007 | News How to Write Successful Fundraising Letters (The Jossey-Bass Nonprofit & Public Management Series) AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis 20 total views, 1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving.
ColumnsUP Ordinance Criminalizing Religious Conversion By Marriage Is An Assault On Personal Liberty Manu Sebastian29 Nov 2020 11:34 PMShare This – xThe Ordinance leads to an unreasonable intrusion into the domain of a personal autonomy and furthers communal stereotypes.The Ordinance brought by the Uttar Pradesh government following the statements of the Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath about the yet to be verified conspiracy theories regarding ‘love jihad’ is both morally and constitutionally repugnant. The Ordinance titled Uttar Pradesh Prohibition of Unlawful Conversion of Religion Ordinance, 2020 (Uttar Pradesh Vidhi Virudh…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Ordinance brought by the Uttar Pradesh government following the statements of the Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath about the yet to be verified conspiracy theories regarding ‘love jihad’ is both morally and constitutionally repugnant. The Ordinance titled Uttar Pradesh Prohibition of Unlawful Conversion of Religion Ordinance, 2020 (Uttar Pradesh Vidhi Virudh Dharma Samparivartan Pratishedh Adhyadhesh, 2020) requires every religious conversion to be scrutinized and certified by the State. The very concept of forcing an individual to explain and justify a decision, which is closely personal to her, before an officer of the State is contrary to Constitutionalism. The Constitution imposes limitations on State power and burdens the State to explain and justify the decisions taken by it affecting the rights and lives of citizens. The Ordinance inverses this equation. There are many troublesome aspects in this Ordinance which treats every religious conversion as unlawful unless certified by the State. But the focus of the present article is on a deeply problematic provision of the Ordinance, which seeks to criminalize religious conversions done for the sake of marriage. Section 3 of the Ordinance prohibits one person from converting the religion of another person by marriage. In another words, religious conversion by marriage is made unlawful. Violation of this provision is punishable with imprisonment for a term which is not less than one year but which may extend up to 5 years and a fine of minimum rupees fifteen thousand. If the person converted happens to be a woman, the punishment is double the normal term and fine. The offence is congnizable and non-bailable. Section 4 enables any person related to the converted person by blood or marriage to lodge an FIR against the conversion. Section 6 empowers Courts to void any marriage it is done for the sole purpose of unlawful conversion or if unwlaful conversion is done for the sole purpose of marriage. These provisions giving State policing powers over a citizen’s choice of life-partner or religion militate against the fundamental rights to individual autonomy, privacy, human dignity and personal liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution. Few days before the promulgation of the Ordinance, the Allahabad High Court had pronounced a significant verdict stating that “Right to live with a person of his/her choice irrespective of religion professed by them, is intrinsic to right to life and personal liberty.” The division bench of the High Court declared as bad in law two single-bench precedents which had held that conversion just for the sake of marriage was invalid. The division bench said that the single bench decisions failed to deal with the “the issue of life and liberty of two matured individuals in choosing a partner or their right to freedom of choice as to with whom they would like to live”. “…neither any individual nor a family nor even the state can have an objection to the relationship of two major individuals who out of their own free will are living together”, the High Court stated.”Right To Choose A Partner Of Choice A Fundamental Right”: Allahabad High Court Says The Judgments Which Held “Conversion For The Purpose Of Marriage Only” Not Good LawThe Ordinance assumes a ‘tone-deaf’ position to this latest ruling of the High Court, which is in line with the expansive meaning given to ‘personal liberty’ by the Supreme Court in its decisions in K S Puttaswamy(privacy case), Navtej Johar(decriminalization of Section 377IPC), Joseph Shine(decriminalization of adultery), Shefin Jahan(Hadiya) and Shakti Vahini(khap panchayat) cases. In the Shefin Jahan case, the Supreme Court held that the right to change of faith is part of fundamental right of choice.”The consent of the family or the community or the clan is not necessary once the two adult individuals agree to enter into a wedlock”, observed the top court while issuing directions to curb khap panchayat interferences in marriages. In the Puttaswamy judgment upholding right to privacy as a fundamental right, the SC said : “Privacy includes at its core the preservation of personal intimacies, the sanctity of family life, marriage, procreation, the home and sexual orientation. Privacy also connotes a right to be left alone. Privacy safeguards individual autonomy and recognises the ability of the individual to control vital aspects of his or her life. Personal choices governing a way of life are intrinsic to privacy. Privacy protects heterogeneity and recognises the plurality and diversity of our culture”Right To Choose Life Partner Is A Fundamental Right, Consent Of Family, Community, Clan Not Necessary For Marriage Between Two Adults: SC [Read Judgment] The Ordinance leads to an unreasonable intrusion into the domain of a personal autonomy. The provisions mandate an advance notice of a 60 days to the District Magistrate before the intended conversion, which is to be followed by a police enquiry into the circumstances of conversion. The religious priest doing the conversion is also required to give such prior notification. After the conversion, the person has to appear before the District Magistrate for confirmation. The authority will notify the conversion and will invite public objections, before confirming the conversion. These provisions have the potential to give state sanction and administrative support to the societal hostilities which persons intending to have inter-faith marriages face. Numerous petitions filed in High Courts seeking police protection for inter-faith couples denote the level of community threat and social ostracism which they have to face. The provisions of the Ordinance energize the community groups and reinforce the social asymmetries to further dis-empower an individual. In this connection, an observation made by the Supreme Court in the Joseph Shine case is significant. “The right to privacy depends on the exercise of autonomy and agency by individuals. In situations where citizens are disabled from exercising these essential attributes, Courts must step in to ensure that dignity is realised in the fullest sense”. Need for the law? The right to choose life partner is a facet of right to privacy, as held in the Puttaswamy judgment. In that judgment, the top court explained that an invasion of right to privacy by the State must meet a threefold requirement to pass the Constitutional muster : Legality, which postulates the existence of law.Need, defined in terms of legitimate social need.Proportionality, which ensures a rational nexus between the objects and the means adopted to achieve them. While the passing of the ordinance could arguably satisfy the first condition of ‘legality’, the State action falters when it comes to the tests of ‘need’ and ‘proportionality’. Going by the public statements of the UP Chief Minister, the need for the law was to control the cases of ‘love-jihad’, a term used to discredit marriages between Muslim men and Hindu women as concerted efforts to cause conversion using the pretext of love. But is there any factual foundation for the public utterances about ‘love-jihad?’ Shortly before the passing of the Ordinance, a Special Investigation Team of Kanpur police had submitted a report ruling out organized conspiracy behind the cases of Hindu-Muslim marriages which were put under scanner. The Kanpur police said they have found no evidence of a conspiracy or an organized effort in the case of Hindu-Muslim romances. Even the National Investigation Agency could not unearth any conspiracy behind inter-faith marriages in the probe launched in the wake of Hadiya case. Recently, the Ministry of Home Affairs told the Parliament that no such case has been reported by any central agency. The National Commission of Women also said recently that it has no data on ‘love jihad’. So, the question here is what were the compelling circumstances which forced the State to bring this law using emergency executive powers when ‘love jihad’ remains a bogey stemming out of religious stereotypes without factual evidence? Proportionality The effect of the law will be to bring a shadow of criminality over every inter-faith marriages. The law empowers disgruntled family members to slap criminal cases on couples who got married defying their diktats. Since the Ordinance reverses the burden of proof by forcing the accused to prove innocence in trial, complaints could be prosecuted at the mere ipse dixit of the irate family members even without any evidence. Thus, the law will lead to a grossly disproportionate result by terrorizing inter-faith couples and by deterring such marriages. Some find the practice of converting religion just for the sake of marriage ethically objectionable. But the question here is whether it should be criminalized. The penal provisions of the Ordinance against conversions for marriage militate against the core concepts of criminal jurisprudence. In the Navtej Singh Johar case where SC decriminalized homosexuality, Justice Chandrachud had discussed the jurisprudence of criminal law. The rational bedrock of criminal law was identified as “the harm principle” as propounded by J S Mill, which permits punitive action on a citizen only to prevent real and tangible harm to another. The harm principle restricts criminal law from penalising conduct merely on the basis of its perceived immorality or unacceptability when the same is not harmful. In the Joseph Shine case, while decriminalizing adultery, the concurring judgment of Justice Indu Malhotra observed: “The element of public censure, visiting the delinquent with penal consequences, and overriding individual rights, would be justified only when the society is directly impacted by such conduct. In fact, a much stronger justification is required were an offence is punishable with imprisonment. The State must follow the minimalist approach in the criminalization of offences, keeping in view the respect for the autonomy of the individual to make his/her personal choices”. Analyzed in the light of these principles, the hastily made Ordinance without any compelling factual grounds to justify its need, fails the test of proportionality. Facially neutral but communally sensitive The Ordinance appears to be facially neutral as it does not specify any particular religious community. But a provision of law cannot be viewed as operating in isolation from its social, political and cultural context.The Ordinance has to be understood in the light of the ‘love jihad’ remarks of the UP Chief Minister, though it does not use the term expressly. The Ordinance is furthering unfounded conspiracy theories which ‘other’ the Muslim community. In a progressive society, an inter-faith union will be welcomed and celebrated.. According to a report, many such couples opt for conversion in order to escape the procedures of Special Marriage Act, which exposes them to their hostile family members. Many of them see conversion as a practical and convenient way to co-habit a couple, escaping the hostile processes under the Special Marriage Act. The Ordinance delegitimizes such unions and creates a chilling effect on individuals who are seeking to transcend barriers of social and religious divisions. Commenting that the law was an antithesis of Constitutional values, lawyer and scholar Gautam Bhatia said : “It is evident that the “love jihad” laws aim to harness social prejudice against inter-faith marriages, and weaponise social and community power in order to discourage – and even persecute – individuals who want to marry outside their faith. To this is added a dose of violent patriarchy, which is set up on the assumption that women are unable to exercise their choices as free individuals, but must be “protected” by the State”.Legal commentator Vakasha Sachdev, writing in ‘The Quint’, drew parallels between the ‘love jihad’ laws and the Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany against mixed marriages. Undermining agency of woman That the law is also founded upon patriarchal notions is clear from the fact that it imposes higher punishment for causing conversion of a woman. The Ordinance undermines the agency of women by viewing them as ‘properties’ needing protection from men of another community(note the use of words like ‘playing with the honour of our sisters and daughter’ by the CM). In the Hadiya case, the Supreme Court had criticized the tendency to brand a woman as “weak and vulnerable, capable of being exploited in many ways” for going against the current of social approval. The Supreme Court observed : “In deciding whether Shafin Jahan is a fit person for Hadiya to marry, the High Court has entered into prohibited terrain. Our choices are respected because they are ours. Social approval for intimate personal decisions is not the basis for recognizing them. Indeed, the Constitution protects personal liberty from disapproving audiences. The strength of our Constitution lies in its acceptance of the plurality and diversity of our culture. Intimacies of marriage, including the choices which individuals make on whether or not to marry and on whom to marry, lie outside the control of the state. Courts as upholders of constitutional freedoms must safeguard these freedoms”. “To consider a free citizen as the property of another is an anathema to the ideal of dignity”, the Supreme Court had said in the Joseph Shine case. The law, which seeks to preserve the power asymmetries in the existing social hierarchies negates the concept of transformative constitution by pressurizing an individual to surrender the fundamental right to personal liberty before the State-supported status quo. More dangerously, the law acts as a vehicle for a divisive agenda by fanning communal passions, and every citizen who swears by the Constitution ought to denounce it. (Manu Sebastian is the Managing Editor of LiveLaw; he may be reached at [email protected] He tweets at @manuvichar) Next Story
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