Tag: 上海油压会所

Is Europe on track to end AIDS by 2020

first_img Source:https://ecdc.europa.eu/ Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Nov 30 2018From diagnosis of HIV to successful viral suppression: in a rapid communication published in Eurosurveillance today, ECDC and co-authors from Public Health England and The National AIDS Trust summarise the progress towards HIV elimination in 52 countries in Europe and Central Asia. The main issues: diagnosing those who are unaware of their HIV infection and treating them.The global targets set out by UNAIDS for 2020 are to diagnose 90% of all HIV-positive people, provide antiretroviral therapy for 90% of those diagnosed, and achieve viral suppression for 90% of those treated (known as 90-90-90 targets). In 2018, 52 of 55 countries completed the survey indicating the progress towards these targets in Europe and Central Asia.Between “substantial progress” and “concerning”Is Europe on track to end AIDS by 2020? Following analysis of the data provided by the 52 countries in 2018, the progress towards the 90-90-90 targets stands at 86%-91%-92% in the EU/EEA. This means that overall, countries in the EU/EEA are on track to reach the targets by 2020. Looking at the whole Region, however, a striking drop in the second stage of the continuum is apparent: across Europe and Central Asia, the figures show a significant gap in the amount of people who are diagnosed with HIV but not receiving treatment: 80%-64%-86%. The article provides results on the targets for each of the reporting countries.The authors acknowledge “substantial progress” towards the 90-90-90 targets across Europe and Central Asia. However, among the estimated 2.1 million people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia “only two out of five are estimated to be virally suppressed in 2018”. Furthermore, “the substantial drop-off between the percentages diagnosed and treated in the East sub-region is concerning since it enables preventable deaths, serious illness and onward transmission.”The results give new insights into necessary steps in the regional or national HIV responses. As almost two-thirds of the 1.2 million people across the region with transmissible virus are diagnosed but only half of those are on treatment, “the biggest public health impact could be achieved through rapid and sustained scale up of treatment”, according to the authors. This is particularly true for countries in the east of the region where the outcome was 76%-46%-78%.Related StoriesAlcohol reduction associated with improved viral suppression in women living with HIVPrevalence of anal cancer precursors is higher in women living with HIV than previously reportedNovel method can help clinicians identify individuals most in need of PrEPPolicies that diversify and enhance the offer of HIV tests could help address the problem of late diagnosis across Europe, as outlined in the new ECDC guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing. This would include testing for indicator conditions, during screenings for other sexually transmitted infections, in community-based settings, as self/home-testing and for partner notification.The authors highlight that the 90-90-90 targets remain a “powerful tool to assess progress towards HIV elimination and drive standards in care” for people living with HIV. But these targets do not provide a comprehensive picture of the public health response to HIV. “Each ‘last 10 percent’ includes people especially marginalised from healthcare services.”What are the 90-90-90 targets?The so-called continuum of HIV care is a framework which allows countries to monitor the effectiveness of key areas in the response to the HIV epidemic along several stages, from diagnosis towards viral suppression. The overall aim is to that people living with HIV are diagnosed (early) and receive antiretroviral treatment (ART) which leads to viral suppression, i.e. the virus is no longer detectable in the blood. Such an undetectable viral load also means that HIV positive people on effective treatment do not transmit the virus.Based on the findings of the ECDC Dublin Declaration report on the continuum in 2015, ECDC now monitors a four-stage continuum that is directly relevant in the European region. Stage 1 looks at the estimated number of all people living with HIV (PLHIV); stage 2 at the number of all PLHIV who have been diagnosed; stage 3 at the number on PLHIV who have been diagnosed and who are on ART; and stage 4 comprises the number of PLHIV on ART who are virally suppressed. In 2018, 34 of 55 countries provided data on all four continuum stages.last_img read more

Expanding pill could be used to monitor stomach conditions for up to

first_img Sources:Ingestible, expanding pill monitors the stomach for up to a month.Ingestible hydrogel device. Nature Communications. Jan 2019. You would have to crack through many crystalline domains to break this membrane. That’s what makes this hydrogel extremely robust, and at the same time, soft.Shaoting Lin, Co-author As reported in the journal Nature Communications, on immersing the pill in solutions that mimicked gastric juices, the pill expanded to 100 times its original size within about one-quarter of an hour, which is much faster than the rate seen with existing hydrogel-based devices. Senior author Xuanhe Zhao says that once inflated, the pill resembles the softness of Jell-O, but is surprisingly strong.To test the strength of the pill, the team squeezed it thousands of times, applying forces even greater than those it would be subjected to as the stomach contracts.“We found that even when we make a small cut in the membrane, and then stretch and squeeze it thousands of times, the cut does not grow larger. Our design is very robust,” says Lin.Finally, small temperature sensors were embedded in the pill which was then fed to pigs. The sensors were later retrieved from the pigs’ stool and used to plot temperature measurements over time.The team reports that the sensors were accurate at tracking the pigs’ daily activity over a period of 30 days.Liu and colleagues hope the pill could one day be used to deliver sensors to the stomach that could measure pH levels and signs of bacterial or viral infection, for example, or cameras that could capture images of ulcers or tumors. The dream is to have a Jell-O-like smart pill, that once swallowed stays in the stomach and monitors the patient’s health for a long time such as a month.Xuanhe Zhao, Senior Authorcenter_img Lin and colleagues wanted to design a hydrogel-based pill that could be used to carry sensors into the stomach to monitor vital signs or disease states over an extended period.However, they knew that a pill tiny enough to pass down the esophagus and into the stomach would also be small enough to pass through a structure called the pylorus and out of the stomach.They therefore looked at ways of designing a pill that would quickly expand to the size of a ping-pong ball to prevent it from leaving the stomach.The inflatable device is made up of one inner hydrogel layer containing superabsorbent particles that quickly soak up liquid and expand and a second outer layer that forms a protective layer that is impervious to churning stomach acids. By Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Jan 30 2019Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Engineers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed a Jell-O-like pill that quickly expands on reaching the stomach and uses an embedded sensor to monitor health status over an extended period of time. Komsan Loonprom | ShutterstockThe soft, squishy device, which is made from hydrogel materials, is softer, longer lasting and more biocompatible than some of the current ingestible stomach sensors that can only stay in the stomach for a few days.last_img read more

Crackdown on immigrant families to start Sunday Trump says

first_imgIn a typical week, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) arrests thousands of immigrants who are staying in the country illegally, according to government data. Most of those arrests are made without any advance publicity.The president, speaking to reporters at the White House on Friday, said he was not concerned that the advance notice could help targeted immigrants evade arrest.”If the word gets out, it gets out,” he said.Since Trump first spoke of the plan, a number of city mayors, nearly all Democrats, have repeated their long-standing policies of not cooperating with ICE officials on deportations and have advertised helplines people can call to understand their rights.Democratic lawmakers, among others, have also sought to inform immigrants of their rights, telling them not to open their door for ICE unless agents present a court-issued warrant, and not to say or sign anything before speaking with a lawyer.DETERRING BORDER CROSSINGSTrump, a Republican who has made cracking down on illegal immigration a centrepiece of his administration, is trying to deal with a surge of mostly Central American families crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. Many families are approaching border officials to seek asylum.The latest planned arrests would follow widespread criticism of the crowded, unsanitary conditions in which immigrants are being detained along the southwestern border and concerns about children being separated from adults by border officials.In a hearing on the subject on Friday at the U.S. House of Representatives, some Democrats said they feared the forthcoming arrests could result in more immigrant children being separated from their families.Elijah Cummings, the chairman of the House Oversight and Reform Committee, asked a federal watchdog about its recently issued report saying detention conditions were below standards.Jennifer Costello, the acting inspector general for the Department of Homeland Security, told the congressional hearing that the government was falling short in terms of “crowding, the prolonged detention, some of the hygiene that the children are supposed to have.”Costello said it would be “impossible” to meet required standards under “the conditions that we saw there.” “It’s shocking,” she said.GRAPHIC – Trump immigration enforcement lags behind Obama : https://fingfx.thomsonreuters.com/gfx/editorcharts/USA-IMMIGRATION/0H001PBKB5E8/index.htmlREPORTERS TAKEN INSIDE Trump sent Vice President Mike Pence to visit some of the criticized detention facilities in McAllen, Texas, on Friday along with journalists, who have generally been denied access to detained immigrants.Pence visited one overcrowded and foul-smelling facility where almost 400 men are detained behind metal fences, some sleeping on concrete, after being accused of crossing the U.S. border illegally.The Trump administration has increased pressure on the governments of Mexico and several Central American countries to stem the flow of migrants reaching the U.S. border.Trump is to meet with Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales at the White House on Monday for talks on immigration and security. Morales may sign an agreement with Trump declaring Guatemala a safe destination for asylum seekers, which could prevent many from applying in the United States, according to officials in both governments.Alongside these international efforts, Trump has sought to deter border crossings with highly publicized crackdowns in the United States.The operation that Trump said would start on Sunday is an example. ICE is expected to target families whose immigration cases were handled through an expedited court process that began in 2018.The agency has notified about 2,000 of those people that they face deportation because they failed to appear in court, acting ICE Director Mark Morgan said last month. Immigration rights activists have complained that in many cases immigrants, especially those involved in expedited hearings, do not receive proper notice of their court dates.ICE has declined to discuss the weekend’s operation, including whether those families are among those being targeted.The American Civil Liberties Union and other civil rights groups sued this week to stop the arrests going ahead, asking a court to prevent the deportation of asylum-seeking families who missed their court dates until they at least get a hearing.Mexico’s government said on Friday that it would step up consular assistance for its citizens living in the United States “who may be affected by the possible migratory operations,” but did not give more details. (Reporting by Nandita Bose; Additional reporting by Mica Rosenberg, Matthew Lavietes and Jonathan Allen in New York, Richard Cowan and Mohammed Zargham in Washington, Kristina Cooke in San Francisco, and Stefanie Eschenbacher in Mexico City; Writing by Susan Heavey and Jonathan Allen; Editing by Dan Grebler, Diane Craft and Daniel Wallis) World 09 Jul 2019 Trump, Macron discuss Iran’s nuclear programme – White House Related News Related News World 10 Jul 2019 Violent Mexican border city opens its doors to U.S. asylum seekerscenter_img WASHINGTON (Reuters) – A nationwide wave of arrests of immigrants facing deportation will commence over the weekend, U.S. President Donald Trump said on Friday, confirming that the plan, intended to discourage a surge of Central American migrants, was on track after a delay.The operation is expected to target hundreds of families in 10 cities that have recently been ordered deported by an immigration court but have not yet left the country. Trump revealed the operation on Twitter last month and then postponed it. It is unusual for the government to announce deportation operations ahead of time.”People are coming into this country illegally, we are taking them out legally,” Trump told reporters on Friday, calling it a “major operation” that would mainly focus on removing criminals. World 11 Jul 2019 Arrests of immigrant families promised by Trump to begin on Sunday, Times says {{category}} {{time}} {{title}}last_img read more